Tag Archives: sun-loving plants

Glen Asked About Transplanting Bougainvillea

Our good friend, Glen, told me about recently moving his bougainvillea to a different spot in his yard where he thought it would be better suited. Glen says it’s not doing so well now. After questioning him about the process of the move, I think I found the answer to his problem. Glen did several things right, but he also did a couple of things wrong.

Bougainvillea - Becky's Purple - mlm c

This beautiful purple bougainvillea belongs to my neighbor, Becky. I enjoy seeing it out my back windows.

What He Did Right:

  • He found a sunny spot with good drainage — two very important things.
  • He pruned the plant a bit to make moving it easier.
  • He dug carefully to avoid damaging the root ball.

What He Did Wrong:

  • He dug up the plant before digging a hole in the new spot.
  • With no hole ready to receive the bougainvillea, he put it on the ground while digging the new hole.

A Common Mistake:

White - mlm cThere was another plant in the place where the bougainvillea was to go, so he dug up that plant and moved it to the place the bougainvillea came from. Then he planted the bougainvillea in the hole where the other plant had been. Meanwhile, the bougainvillea roots were exposed to the air. Not having the new planting hole ready and waiting is a common mistake. I even had a landscape worker in North Carolina do that to a large lantana. I was not a happy camper.

For a plant to be moved within the landscape, moved from a pot to the ground, or even re-potted, puts it into shock for a few days. The roots should be exposed to air for no more than a couple of minutes.

My Suggestions for Glen Were:

Keep the traumatized bougainvillea well watered while it recovers from the shock of being moved. Be sure it is in rich, acidic soil. It should recover soon, but will likely lose some leaves. There may also be some dead wood that needs to be removed.

When moving a plant, whether established, or newly planted, be sure to have the new hole prepared and ready to receive the plant, before digging it from its comfy home. If, like Glen, you need to move one plant in order to move another, dig up the first one and put it into a pot with good soil, or into a bucket of water until its new home is ready to receive it.

Hot Pink - zoomed mlm c@

This is the hot pink bougainvillea that once grew near our front door.

How and Where to Plant Your Bougainvillea

There is an expression among gardeners that, for any plant, a good rule of thumb is to dig a $50 hole for a $5 plant. You need a hole that is wide enough that you can easily rake soil into it around the root ball. For bougainvillea, the hole should be deep enough that the top of the root ball is just slightly above the surrounding soil level. This allows water to drain away, and prevents standing water at times of heavy rain.

Plant your bougainvillea close to a wall if you plan to let it climb a trellis. If you have space for these beauties to ramble, you can also plant them by a fence. To be on a trellis that is not against a wall, would require a very sturdy trellis, but it can be done. Those make great privacy screens. Also, there are some that have been trained and pruned to behave as if they were small ornamental trees. I have no experience with those, but it seems to me they would also require some maintenance pruning.

White - mlm c

This gorgeous white bougainvillea is one I saw in a garden shop. Of course, I snapped a photo. Notice the little touch of pink on that top bract?

If you are new to a warm or mild climate, and want bright, almost year-round color, and don’t mind the thorns, bougainvillea is for you. One other thing, you will need plenty of room for this aggressive, sprawling, vine to grow and show off for you.

Shamrocks for St. Patrick’s Day

Today, everyone is Irish, so here are some shamrocks from my garden for you.

cropped-shamrock-leaves.jpg

In the spring and summer, shamrocks have a profusion of lovely white flowers.

Shamrock Flowers - mlm c@

Shamrocks are happiest in moist, but well-drained soil. They enjoy full sun. You can buy them almost anywhere that sells plants at this time of year. I bought mine at the grocery store several years ago, and they are dong well. They did suffer a bit from the freeze we had in February, but are coming back now.

I Cut Down My Beloved Bougainvillea

Hot Pink - full bloom - mlm c@

I have always loved bougainvillea (pronounced “boo gan vee ah”) from afar. The first one I ever saw in person was in San Francisco. It had climbed two stories, and was rambling all over a 2nd floor terrace. I was enchanted with that beautiful vine. So, when we moved to central Florida, I knew that was the first tropical plant I would buy, and it was. Sadly, our tiny yard does not have a great place for this flowering vine to climb and roam. It needs a fence or garden wall to tumble over and sprawl to its heart’s content. We don’t have that place.

With a heavy heart, I cut down my bougainvillea this week. I have loved it and fretted over it for 2-1/2 years. When in full bloom, people walking their dogs would stop by and ask about it, or comment on it. It was absolutely gorgeous each spring, and very pretty in the fall. The rest of the year, it was very high maintenance with frequent pruning required to prevent it from hanging out over our front walk, and constant spraying with insecticidal soap in a failing effort to rid it of those pesky caterpillars.

On House - mlm c@

This photo was taken shortly after a severe pruning to remove it from the gutters, sofit, and roof. It had even wrapped around the downspout.

Bougainvillea grows rapidly here. Who am I kidding? Everything grows rapidly here. That can be a wonderful thing. It can also be a not so good thing. My bougainvillea was against the wall of our garage, which is parallel to the walk that leads to the front door of our home. Frequent pruning was required to keep the upper limbs from hanging out over that walk. I could walk under a lot of them, but most folks had to dodge the thorny branches of this prolific vine.

More Caterpillar Damage - mlm c@

It was once taller than the house, and soon would have been lying on the roof. Not good.

This fall, it has had only a few flowers because the caterpillars were eating the newest growth before it could mature. We’ve had a  hotter than normal summer, so insecticidal oils that don’t wash off when it rains, melted off in the heat. We’ve also had a very rainy summer, so after each rain I had to spray insecticidal soap again, and again, and again.

 

And then, there were those thorns. Those huge thorns.

Thorns mlm c@

 It all got to be too much trouble for this gardener.

Caterpillar Feces - mlm c@

The droppings of those caterpillars were all over our front walk, and had to be swept away daily, sometimes twice daily.

Here you see the tiny droppings on my day lilies. They are so small, they could have gotten in between our dog’s pads, or the soles of our shoes, and been tracked into the house. That presents a potential health threat. Those caterpillars had to go. Unfortunately, that meant the bougainvillea had to go, too.

Do You Know Which Part Is the Actual Flower?

Hot Pink - zoomed mlm c@

Although the showy colorful bracts everyone loves are the most dramatic part, the tiny white blossom in the center is the actual flower. They’re like poinsettias in that way.

Each bract has 3 sections with a tiny flower emerging at its base.

Hot Pink - zoomed 2 mlm c@

Will I miss the show bougainvillea puts on each spring?

Purple - mlm c@

No, I can still enjoy them in other peoples’ gardens, such as this one a couple of miles from my home.

It’s kind of like being a grandparent. You get to enjoy the kids without having to be the primary caretaker.

 

 

 

 

 

More Ways to Introduce Color in to Your Garden

Variegated Ginger Flower Buds - mlm

I recently chatted with a woman at my local coffee house, and of course, the topic eventually turned to gardening, and what to plant in this worthless soil. She complained of her flowers suffering in the mid-summer heat, and asked about other plants, especially foliage plants, for introducing color into her garden. It’s true, some flowers can get long and leggy during summer heat, and even the new guinea impatiens, which can take sun, may wilt and die in intense heat, with drought or near-drought conditions. This lady was fortunate. She had some of the much-coveted shade provided by huge live oaks.

I have highlighted 6 foliage plants in this post. These are the top 5 foliage plants for shade and shade-to-part sun gardens in most of the southeastern United States, plus my favorite tropical foliage plant, shown above. It’s shown as #4 below, and is the only one that will not survive in the entire southeast.

During the hottest weather, many plants grown for their flowers will struggle in the heat. It is at this time that foliage plants can shine. With their many shades of green, from yellowish-green to darkest blue-green, cream, white, even red, pink, purple, burgundy, and black, they add great interest to the garden, especially shady areas where some flowers will not grow. I filled the shady, wooded area in the yard of our former homes in Alabama and North Carolina with foliage plants, especially hosta, fern, and wild violets. I did not limit it to hosta and fern, though. I also added elephant ears and ground covers such as the chartruese Creeping Jenny.

I admit to being partial to hosta and fern, but there are so many other foliage plants, and some of the new hybrids are so colorful that it is possible to create an amazing  flower-free yet color-filled  garden. Coleus and Caladiums are also favorites of mine, and I depend on all of these for my new yard that still has very little shade, although I am trying hard to create it.

1. — Coleus

Whether you pronounce it “cole-yus”,or “col-e-us” seems to depend on where you originate. Either way, you have to agree it is one of the most colorful foliage plants we have. This plant probably comes in more color combinations, than most of the others listed here: burgundies, reds, purples, various shades of green, white, and even yellow. Coleus is easy to grow, and will add beauty to your garden. Until the last few years, coleus grew only in the shade. Today, however, there are many new varieties that do well in full sun. Oh, the wonders of hybridization!

Coleus Along Path

This plant comes in so many color combinations, it is mind-boggling:  burgundies, reds, purples, various shades of green, white, and even yellow. Coleus is easy to grow, and will add beauty to your garden.

This beauty was huge last year, and remained beautiful until January when it began to get truly cold. Unfortunately, I don’t know the name of this one. Normally, it would have come back in the spring (only in very warm climates) but the hard freeze we had in February killed it. This variety is the one I had the most requests for cuttings from friends and neighbors.

Wine Dipt - mlm

This photo is of some coleus cuttings I took to root last year.  It’s called “Wine Dipt”. My blog post of August, 29, 2014,  shows how to root coleus.

When new leaves emerge on this one, they are a light green with only a tiny bit of “wine” showing. As the leaves mature, the colors spread and intensify. The colors in this one seem to become more brilliant when receiving a bit of sun. It can take full sun, but is happy in the shade, too.

Younger Wine Dipt - mlm

 

 

 

 

 

 

This photo is of some younger leaves on Wine Dipt.

To Flower or Not to Flower?

Many gardeners pinch off the flower buds of coleus, because as soon as it flowers, it begins to bolt or “go to seed”. I want my foliage plants to last the season, so I constantly pinch off those flower buds.  Coleus is really an annual, and the purpose of annuals is to flower, wilt, and produce seed for the following year. The way to get more flowers is to deadhead the plants by pinching off the spent blooms. Frustrated, the plants will continue to flower in an effort to produce seed.

The flowers of coleus are so very tiny on tall, sturdy stalks. I believe they take away from the beauty of the plant, so I always pinch off the flower buds as soon as they appear. A year or so ago, the hybridizers made me happy again by producing a type of coleus that does not flower. Meet “Wasabi”:

Coleus - Wasabi - mlm

Non-Flowering Wasabi

This one is called Wasabi. It loves the sun and shade. It has serrated edges, and is slightly corrugated. Again it’s colors are more luminescent in full sun. Although it won’t flower, it can be encouraged to bush out by pinching off the center stalk now and then. Multiple plants can be obtained by cutting or breaking off healthy stems, and rooting them.

A Truly Weird Combination of Chromosomes Must Be Inside This One

Compost Coleus 2 - mlm

Compost Coleus

I don’t know the name of this one either. Lately, I have been calling it “Compost Coleus” because it came up at the back of my very small compost bin, and has  taken over half of the area.  Yep, I should have moved it while it was still small.

Actually, it has a very interesting pattern of chartreuse and burgundy which, on most of the leaves, appears as if someone has spattered paint on it. It has a few leaves that are solid chartreuse, even fewer that are solid burgundy, and occasionally, it will have a leave that is exactly half burgundy and half chartreuse, or half solid and half speckled — split right along the middle vein or “mid-line” as shown in the two photos below. Weird, huh?

Weird Coleus - mlm Wht

 

Paint Brush Coleus - mlm

 

2. — Caladiums

Caladiums are in the same family with elephant ears (#5 below). They have always been available in green & white and green & red. Later varieties came to include red/green/pink and red/white. More and more variations on these colors seem to appear every couple of years. Here are some of mine:

Caladiums - White - mlm

“Florida Sunrise”

I have plenty of this variety to share. It’s called “Florida Sunrise”. As you can see, it is white with green and red veins. The red looks to me like watercolor “bloom”, i.e., paint that has spread or “bloomed” into adjacent wet paint or wet paper.

These guys do fine in full sun during the spring, BUT when the summer heat arrives, they won’t last long. I have some in the sun, and am gradually moving them to less sunny spots in our yard.

White Caladiums cropped - mlm

 

White w Speckled Red - mlm

“Gingerland”

This is one of the newest ones I have seen — white with a green border, and splashes of red. I have only one of these, but this is a plant that multiplies year after year. Soon there will be plenty to share with friends and neighbors.

It now gets morning sun, and is shaded from the harsh afternoon sun. After it multiplies, I think I will see what happens when I move one of them to a sunnier spot.

 

 

 

CC and Caladiums - mlm“Red Flash”

Here’s a photo of the huge, mostly red caladium. I took this photo to show how large the leaves have gotten this year. Little C.C. is a 10-pound Maltese, and the plant is at least twice her height.

 

3. — Hosta

Hosta was always my number one favorite foliage plant, but for whatever reason, they don’t seem to do well in this part of central Florida. I brought some with me when we moved, and they come up each spring, look beautiful until mid-summer, then shrivel up and disappear until the next spring. Go figure.

There so many different varieties and colors, there has to be one for you. Although hostas are not available in the reds, pinks purples, and blacks of other foliage plants, they are available in all shades of green, plus white, cream, and yellow. When we lived in North Carolina, I had a white one that had green edges. It was beautiful. I still wish I had taken it when we moved. Hostas are also available in sizes ranging from just a few inches across to 5 – 6 feet wide.

They do send up tall slender stalks with tiny white or lavender flowers. Some, for example, “Royal Standard” have a lovely fragrance. If you don’t want the flowers, just clip off the stalks when they first emerge. Just remember, if you do that, you won’t have any seed from the spent blossoms. I usually  clip them off, because I grow hosta for the lovely foliage. Below I show a few of those in my garden.

“Great Expectations”

Great Expectations - mlm

This is one of my favorites. Unlike some of the smooth-leaf types, this one has corrugated leaves that add even greater interest to the multi-color plant. This is a variety that grows quite large.

 

“Guacamole”

Hosta - Guacamole - mlm

This one is called “Guacamole”. This photo was taken in early spring — not long after it had come up and unfurled. When Guacamole reaches maturity in 3 to 5 years, it will be 4 or 5 feet across. There is a bit of a border on this one that shows a slightly darker green based on the amount of shade vs. sun received.

“June”

Hosta - June - mlm

“June” is a mid-ize hosta. Its leaves are an almost luminous chartruese with darker green edges whose color occasionally wanders toward the center. These lighter colored hostas are nice because they are still visible on a moonlit night. They can take some morning sun, but prefer dappled light, or complete shade.

“FRANCES WILLIAMS”

Hosta - Frances Wms - mlm

Frances Williams is a common, but very popular corrugated hosta. It is similar to Great Expectations, but without the creamy white. This one can grow quite large. Most hosta enthusiasts have at least one of these.

4. — Variegated Ginger, )Alpinia Zerumbet Variegata) is One of the Tropicals

Variegated Ginger

These giant beauties will grow to 5 – 6 feet tall, and multiply over the years. They prefer shade, or at least filtered light. Mine do get the morning and early-afternoon sun, and seem to be fine.

In the warmest climates they survive year-round. Mine suffered with the hard freeze we had in February of 2015, and still show some damage, but their new growth is beautiful. This photo is one I took before the freeze. I ran out of sheets to cover them. Next winter, I will be sure to have enough to cover all my tender plants.

Variegated Ginger Flower Buds - mlm

This is not the edible type of ginger, but it really adds interest to the landscape. It does produce flowers, and mine bloomed this year for the first time. Here’s a shot of the first buds. As this stem with the flower buds emerges, it hangs over, with the buds dangling like grapes. Then they begin to open, revealing tiny but gorgeous orchid-like flowers. This photo has been enlarged. The actual flower is about the size of a quarter.

Variegated Ginger Flower - mlm

 

There is also a red, cream, gold and dark green variety of variegated ginger. It requires full shade, so I keep mine in a pot inside our lanai. This is it:

Red Variegated Ginger - mlm

 Here is a photo of one that was planted in full sun a couple of blocks from my home:

Sun parched variegated ginger

This plant was very pretty when first planted, but it roasted last summer with the sun bearing down on it, while its roots and lower leaves were baked by the hot rocks. You’ve probably heard the expression, “It’s hot enough to fry an egg on the sidewalk.” Well, those rocks get about that hot. The darker colored ones are even worse. I cannot stress enough — plants in the south have very shallow roots, and cannot take the heat generated by rocks used in place of real mulch.  This plant truly was “toast”. It’s owners replaced it during the hot summer with a hosta — another plant that requires mostly shade. There is a hosta that can take a lot of sun. It’s called “Sum and Substance” and grows to about 5 feet wide. It was not the one they used. The one they planted is still there, but is also struggling.

5. — Elephant Ears

These giant beauties will grow to 5 – 6 feet tall, and multiply over the years. In coastal regions and warm climates, they will survive year-round. In colder climates, they die back in late autumn or early winter, but return in the spring. If planted in the coldest climates, they may be killed by hard freezes, and should be taken indoors for the winter season, then replanted when warm weather returns. I especially enjoy them because they provide a little bit of tropical atmosphere to non-tropical regions.

Elephant Ears - Black - mlm

“Illustrus”

This purplish-black variety is called “Illustris”. I don’t have this variety in my yard, so I snapped this photo at the Lowe’s Home Improvement Warehouse near our former home in Alabama. This variety adds interest to any garden. I decided I must have some of these but cannot find them here. In the background some of the younger leaves that still show large green veins can be seen. Elephant ears of these colors would be beautiful with an under-planting of pink or lavender flowers, as you can see from the pink flowers sitting behind them.

Giant Green Ear - mlm

Jumbo Elephant Ears

Here is a photo I took for an art project of my green jumbo elephant ears, (botanical name: Colocasia Esculenta). They grew to almost seven feet tall last summer. Unfortunately, the hard freeze we had in February, 2015, caused them to have to start over from the ground up this spring. Here they are now with a Dwarf Sugar Palm behind them.

Backyard Foliage - mlm

6. — Fern

There are many types of ferns in a variety of shades of green. Some have a silvery coating on their fronds, and are quite beautiful.

Christmas Fern - Bud MMP x2This is Boston Fern, a.k.a., Nephrolepis exalta. It grows wild throughout central Florida, and other warm climates. It can often be seen growing on the trunks of palms where its seeds have settled into the boots of the palm. The boot is portion of the leaf stalk left behind after removal of a dead palm leaf. They are what make up the the crisscross pattern on the trunk of a palm.

Warning:  Boston fern is very, very invasive. Before I knew this, I took a couple of sprigs from a palm growing on the side of the road. I brought them home, rooted them, then planted them in my yard. They have taken over a section of my flower bed underneath my poinsettias and one of my split-leaf philodendrons. You have to love fern not to be upset by this, and I do.

Southern Wood Fern

Southern Wood Fern has a more upright growth pattern than many ferns.

Southern Wood Fern

I don’t know the correct name for this wild fern. In my home state of Alabama, it is called Southern Wood Fern. It grows wild in woodland areas throughout the southeastern United States. It is frequently called  “Christmas Fern” because of the tiny leaves that are shaped like Christmas stockings.   In the photo below, the “toe” that gives it the stocking shape can be seen.  This is the first plant we learned  to find and name when I was in Brownie Scouts.

Christmas Fern

Here the tiny “toes” can be seen on each leaf of the frond at the point where it is attached to the main stem. The ones on the bottom row are easier to see.

I took this fern from the woods behind my parents’ home near Birmingham, AL. I also took some of it to my home in North Carolina, but left it there when we relocated to the Rocky Mountain area. In NC, it died back completely in winter, but came back each spring. In Alabama, it does not die back completely in winter. If there are hard freezes, though, it will begin to look a bit ragged, but will put out new growth at the first signs of spring. This fern looks really nice planted among hostas and other shade-loving plants.

Starting Coleus From Cuttings – Nothing Could Be Easier

Coleus Variety

Whether you pronounce it “cole-yus”, or “col-e-us” you have to agree it is one of the most colorful foliage plants we have. This plant comes in so many color combinations it is mind-boggling:  burgundies, reds, purples, various shades of green, white, and even yellow. Coleus is easy to grow, and will add beauty to your garden.

The photo above shows just a few of the many colors and leaf shapes available. The top left  frame contains one I call my weird coleus. That is all one plant that came up as a volunteer from seed dropped last summer.  I have never seen have its colors evenly divided right down the middle vein like one stem of that plant has. The original plant had the splotches of burgundy on chartreuse that is on parts of this plant. I assume it is some kind of genetic mutation. If so, I think it’s a pretty cool mutation.

Until the last few years, coleus grew only in the shade. Today, however, there are many new varieties that do well in full sun. Oh, the wonders of hybridization! Some of them do well in either sun or shade, but change depth of color based on the amount of sun they get.

The following photos show the process of going from cutting to garden-ready:

To root your own cuttings, simply break off a piece, with a long stem, if possible. Strip the cutting of its lower leaves. Any leaves left on the lower part of the stem will be under water where they will rot and contaminate the water. Place the stems into a glass or jar of water, or even an empty cottage cheese container as shown below. Within only a few days you will see pale bumps begin to emerge on the stem. The little bumps will become tiny hair-like roots.

Some of the leaves above the water level may dry and fall off. That’s OK. New leaves will soon come. If any fall into the water, be sure to remove them. They will make great compost for your garden or flower beds.

Starting a cutting

Below is a closer view of those baby roots. Roots that sprout in water are tiny and delicate. These need another two-to-three weeks to grow. They will soon appear to be ready to plant, but don’t be too hasty. They will protest by wilting if suddenly moved from water to soil because, when taken from their watery environment, these little roots quickly become brittle. They can recover, but it is traumatic for the plant, and will require daily extra effort on your part.

Zoomed on Baby roots

The best way to avoid that problem is this:

When there are sufficient roots that have grown 2-3 inches long, begin to add small amounts of clean (un-used) potting soil to the water.  Used potting soil or soil from your garden will contain microbes that will likely encourage mold to grow in the water.  If you are rooting a lot of cuttings, you will need to move them to separate containers before the roots grow large enough to become entangled. I save empty cottage cheese containers for this, as well as for starting seeds. On the other hand, if you want to plant them all in one spot, no need to separate them.

Gradually increase the amount of soil and decrease the amount of water. The photo below was taken after several additions of soil. You can see that the soil is still extremely wet.

You may be wondering why the container below is sitting in a bowl of water. It’s because I realized too late that I had put the cuttings and soil into a container with holes punched in the bottom. These cuttings are not yet ready to have their water drain off, so I put them into a bowl that would hold the water.

After the roots adjust to this much soil, you should begin to back off on the water, and add more soil. When the plant thrives as a normally potted plant, it is ready to move to your garden. You can also grow coleus as a potted plant, if you prefer. In that case, you do want a pot with drainage holes!

In Wet Soil

Soon you will have a beautiful coleus plant like this one, or those at the top of this page.

Wine

Leave your gardening questions or comments below, or e-mail me at inthegarden.maria@gmail.com.